The short answer is yes, you can still keep growing vegetables even in winter but what you can and can’t grow will depend on how mild or severe winters are in your area.
Even still, you can increase the types of vegetables and the growing season by using cold frames, and if space and your budget permits, a greenhouse.
Many cool-season vegetables can be grown even in winter. Some of these vegetables can tolerate frost and harsher winters, while some can only tolerate light frosts and may only be suitable for areas with milder climates.
- Kale: an extremely cold-hardy plant that can be grown for fresh greens throughout the winter months.
- Collard Greens: another hardy leafy green that grows throughout winter.
- Spinach: This plant can tolerate cold temperatures well and is a great addition to a winter garden.
- Garlic: The bulb formation in garlic is best when planted in the fall and is overwintered for harvesting in the spring.
- Brussels Sprouts: Brussels sprouts are a late-season crop that can be grown through the winter in some regions.
- Swiss chard: this plant can endure light frost and continues to produce throughout the winter.
- Carrots: In regions with mild winters, carrots can be left in the ground and harvested as needed, provided the soil doesn’t freeze.
- Beets/Beetroot: This vegetable plant can tolerate cold temperatures and can be harvested throughout winter in mild climates.
- Turnips: These are cold-hardy plants that can be harvested during winter as well.
- Leeks: These plants are cold hardy and can be easily overwintered in areas with mild winters.
- Broccoli: Planting broccoli in late summer or early fall can yield a winter crop in milder climates.
- Cauliflower: Similar to broccoli, cauliflower can be planted in late summer for a winter harvest.
- Cabbage: Cabbage is mildly cold-tolerant and can be harvested during the winter months in areas with mild winters. Some of the outermost leaves may have to be removed after harvesting.
- Onions: Some onion varieties are suited for overwintering and can be planted in late summer or early fall for a spring harvest.
- Lettuce: Some lettuce varieties like Winter Density, Arctic King, or Merveille des Quatre Saisons are hardy enough to survive and even thrive in winter conditions. Look for varieties.
- Radish: Some radish varieties can be grown in winter, especially in areas with mild winters.
Certain varieties of these vegetables that have been specifically bred for cold tolerance or overwintering will be easier to grow and do better in winter. Look for terms like “winter,” “cold-hardy,” or “frost-resistant” on seed packets, or ask local gardeners or a gardening center to find out the best varieties for your winter vegetable gardening in your area.
Planting your vegetable plants at the correct time is crucial. In most regions, you should start planting winter vegetables in late summer to early fall. This allows the plants enough time to establish themselves before winter’s chill sets in.
The ideal temperature for germination of most cold-hardy plants is a lot warmer than their ideal growing temperature. This means it may be better to start your plants indoors if they can be transplanted or under the shelter of a cold frame or other protective covering if they don’t do well with being transplanted.
Proper soil preparation is vital. Ensure your soil is well-draining, rich in organic matter, and is fertile. Vegetable plants that are fertilized well are healthier and better able to face tough weather conditions. Adding compost or well-rotted manure can improve soil quality, especially if you’ve used the same garden area for growing vegetables through the summer.
Extreme cold and heavy snowfall can present challenges. Be prepared to provide extra protection during particularly harsh weather events. In areas with harsh winters or the potential of harsh winters, using row covers or cold frames can help protect your plants from drastic drops in temperature and harsh winds.
Watering regularly is important even in cold weather as plants need constant moisture. Despite the need for moisture, being cautious not to overwater your plants can help prevent root rot, downy mildew, and other diseases encouraged by damp conditions.
While pests are less active in winter, insect pests such as aphids and cabbage moths, as well as slugs, can still be problematic. Inspecting your plants regularly can help you take immediate action, if necessary. In addition, larger pests, like rodents, rabbits, and deer, may present a bigger problem during winter. Read more about pests that are active in cooler weather
You can typically harvest many winter vegetables as and when needed. Leafy greens, like kale and spinach, can be picked leaf by leaf as you need. Root vegetables, like carrots and beets, can be left in the ground until you’re ready to use them.
Although many winter vegetables need only 2-4 hours of sunlight a day, in areas with fewer hours of daylight, artificial lighting, such as grow lights, may be needed to provide your plants with enough hours of light.
Winter gardening is an experimental process for most home gardeners as it may take some trial and error to find varieties and gardening methods that work best in your specific location. Keeping a gardening journal can help you keep a record of what worked and what didn’t in your winter vegetable garden so that you don’t have to repeat the same mistakes over and over again.